#035: How to Target Later Grammar Goals in Therapy

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In this episode, we’re continuing on with part three of our discussion grammar — a super exhilarating topic! Especially when it’s in conjunction with literacy-based therapy.

…See what I did there?

(FYI: Here are episodes one and two of this grammar series if you want to catch up.)

This week we’re talking about grammar for older students, which is even more exhilarating than usual because we’re moving beyond the typical pronouns, verbs, and irregular pronouns, and we’re jumping right into more complex syntax.

After all, who doesn’t love complex syntax?!

Go on and grab your beverage of choice, put your feet up, and get ready to get your nerd on. 🤓

Key Takeaways + Topics Covered

– Review of fundamentals for later grammar goals:
– The five-step framework we’re using for grammar intervention
– The literacy-based therapy framework
– How to target grammar goals using the literacy-based therapy framework

Links Mentioned in the Podcast

Evidence-based strategies for grammar intervention
How to target early grammar goals in therapy
Visuals for complex sentences in the SLP Now Membership
Connell (1982) article
Apps that can be used in therapy
Digital therapy planner
– Snow Day Fever from ReadWorks

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Thanks so much!


Hey there, it's Marisha from SLP Now, and welcome to the SLP Now podcast. Today, we are continuing the discussion about literacy-based therapy. Today, we're focusing on grammar, which is a super exhilarating topic. We all love grammar. We're talking about grammar for older students, which is even more exhilarating, because we're moving beyond the typical pronouns, verbs, irregular pronouns, those kinds of things, and jumping into more complex syntax and all of the things related to that.

I cannot wait to dive in. What we're going to do today is, we'll talk about the different types of targets that we might look at, when we're working with older students. We'll map that onto the framework that I presented two episodes ago. We're going to move through things in the same way as we did in the last episode, 34, except last time was for earlier goals, like the things that I just mentioned, those plural nouns, past tense verbs, pronouns, all that good stuff, and we're diving into how to do these with older students.

If you want a refresher, definitely head to episode 33 for an overview of all things grammar. Head to episode 34 if you want the nitty-gritty specifics for those earlier goals, and stay tuned if you're feeling good about the basics of grammar intervention, and you just want to dive into all things grammar and syntax. Super fun.

Before we dive into all of the strategies, I just wanted to make sure that we're on the same page in terms of some of the things we could potentially target and what those things are. I enjoy grammar and learning about it. I had a English teacher in high school who had us diagram all the sentences. I got pretty good at it. I understand all of those different elements, but I know that's not everyone's cup of tea. I'll just share what we would need to know to be able to help our students. Then, you're aware of what types of targets make sense.

One that I think we're all pretty comfortable with is just compound and complex sentences. Just a quick recap of a compound sentence. A compound sentence just contains two sentences. We join them together with a coordinating conjunction. Then, there's a nice little acronym that we can use. It's FANBOYS, so F-A-N-B-O-Y-S. That helps us remember all the different coordinating conjunctions, so for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

That one's pretty simple. Compound sentence, check. We've got that down. Complex sentences are a little bit more complicated. We have an independent clause, which includes a subject and a verb, and then we also have a dependent clause, which includes a subordinating conjunction, the subject, and a verb. It's just a little bit more ... I mean, the sentence can be the same length, but it's just a little bit more complex in terms of understanding it. There we go.

We've got compound sentences, which just combine two sentence with a coordinating conjunction, and then complex sentences include an independent and a dependent clause that are put together. The dependent clause has a subordinating conjunction. There's a handful of subordinating conjunctions, but some examples are after, since, that, until, when, which, where, while, if, before, because, all of those good ones.

That's what we've got for our complex sentences. Those are pretty simple. When I'm introducing these to students, I always use a visual. My visuals are in the SLP Now membership, but you can find lots of ideas and inspiration online.

I like using paperclips to help students put together sentences. We might just rip up some pieces of papers, or use some note cards, or whatnot. Then, you can even get fancy, and color code them, and add different labels to the paperclips. I usually just have, if I have colored paperclips, or I'll just grab a regular one and draw on it with markers, so that it's "color-coded". Then, we'll use that to start putting those sentences together.

The visuals that I created make that really easy. That ends up working really well. Those are pretty simple to introduce to students and to start practicing. We'll talk about more of the nitty-gritty, in terms of all five steps of the framework and what we would do within each of the steps, but hopefully we're on the same page with compound and complex sentences.

The next thing that we might target is the passive voice. This is a little bit funky. I know that all of my teachers would say not to write in the passive voice, but a lot of texts use the passive voice. It can be tricky for our students to understand that, because it's just a little bit of a different sentence structure, and one that we don't always use in conversation. I think it's helpful to break that down and have that be a little bit clearer for our students.

What is the passive voice? It's when the object becomes the subject of the sentence. I could say, "Someone stole my laptop." That's how we would typically say it. That is the active voice. We don't know who that someone is, so we could flip it and make my laptop the subject of the sentence. We could say, "My laptop was stolen." The subject of the original sentence is just left off.

It makes sense that that can get a little confusing for our students, like I said, because it switches things up. We can use it to emphasize the action, or the verb, or if we don't know who or what the subject is, and it's in a lot of different texts. That's just something that we might want to break down for our students, because it shows up a lot, especially when it comes to textbooks and nonfiction texts. That can trip them up. That'll be something that we can address with our students.

The next thing that we're going to talk about, so, we've got compound, complex sentences, check. Passive voice, check. Next on the list is adverbial clauses. With adverbial clauses, it's, again, a clause is a group of words, and an adverbial clause, no surprise, it plays the role of an adverb.

Instead of, like, I go to the store daily, that daily is just a regular adverb. If we want to change daily into an adverbial clause, we can say, I go to the store when my mom tells me to. When my mom tells me to becomes that adverbial clause. That's something that we can help teach our students, because our students will tend to create simpler sentences. That can also, again, like we talked about before, that can also impact their comprehension.

By teaching them these structures, and modeling them to the students, having them create sentences, and experimenting with these different structures, and then, also, when we come across them in a text, breaking them down, and understanding them, those can help students. It'll enrich their writing, their ability to describe and explain, because if we have very limited syntax, and if we're only creating those very simple sentences, it definitely does impact our ability to explain things that are a little bit more complex, potentially.

That's why, because you might be thinking, why in the world? I don't even know what an adverbial clause is. Why in the world would I target that? That's why. You definitely do know what an adverbial clause is. You use that all the time. It's just something that we just can break down a little bit for our students.

We've got that one down. We are on the last one. We've got a relative clause. This is sometimes, this is called an adjective or adjectival, I think is how you say that, clause. That's in contrast to the adverbial clause. It makes sense that a relative or adjective clause functions as the adjective. An adverbial clause functions as the adverb. The relative/adjective clause functions as the adjective in a sentence.

Just backing up a second, too, with clauses, all clauses contain a subject and a verb. The relative clause begins with a relative pronoun, so who, whom, whose, that, which, or a relative adverb, when, where, why. While a relative clause typically starts with a relative pronoun or a relative adverb, an adverbial clause typically starts with a subordinating conjunction. There is some overlap here between the relative pronoun and relative adverb, as well as subordinating conjunctions. Some fit into both categories, there.

What we want to do is really look at the function of the clause. The relative clause functions as the adjective. The adverbial clause functions as the adverb. That is the main difference there, because they're both clauses. They both have subjects and verbs. There might be some overlap in the pronouns conjunctions that we see popping up there. That's really what we want to be looking at when we are distinguishing those different types of clauses.

Targeting either of them will help our students, again, like I said before, increase the complexity of their own language, but then, also being able to understand, because if there's ... There can be sentences with multiple clauses in them. This is often, we see this. We might have a sentence with passive voice and multiple clauses embedded. It can get really tricky to understand.

It'd be a shame if it's just syntax holding back our students. If they're building that vocabulary and getting all of those skills, we don't want syntax to be that barrier. It's something that we can do to support our students, and help improve their writing, and all of that good stuff.

That was our quick recap. That wasn't too painful. We got to go through all of this different structures. Compound, complex sentences, passive voice, adverbial clauses, and relative clauses. Those are the five things that I typically focus on when I'm working on more later grammar goals with older students or students ...

This can even start earlier in elementary school, depending on where the students are. If we're working on describing, it might make sense to work on some relative clauses, because then they'll be able to use their describing words and all of that. There are different examples on how to make that work. Also, compound, complex sentences, that's something that we can often work on.

That's what we've got. I want to jump back into the framework that we talked about in episode 35, or episode 33. Like I said before, definitely revisit that episode if you want a more thorough overview of why we even want to target grammar goals in context, and why even target these types of skills. We did touch on that a little bit, today. Then, if you want a more thorough overview of the framework and kind of stepping back into the research and theory behind it, definitely check out episode 33. Today, we'll do a quicker run-through of the different steps of the framework and just talk about how we can make that happen.

Just to recap those five steps, so you have an idea of what we're working through, the first step is assessment. Again, I would recommend going to episode 33 for a more thorough overview of that. A lot of the things that we talked about will apply, and you can use those. Just the quick recap, you'll want to use language samples, writing samples, whatever you can get from the classroom. You could potentially look at their comprehension, and seeing if the syntax helps with that, all that good stuff.

Then, step two is teaching. Step three is focused stimulation. Step four is structured practice. Step five is embedded practice. Since we did a lot on step one, assessment, in episode 33, we are going to jump into step two.

This will really depend on the skill that we're talking about. I always, especially when we're talking about grammar, it can get a little bit confusing if we're trying to describe all of these things to students. I think pairing this with visuals is incredibly helpful.

The example that I gave for compound and complex sentences, like using those different note cards, color coded paper clips, that kind of stuff, having that matchup with a visual is really helpful. For me, I make compound sentences green. Complex sentences are red. The conjunctions are those colors. Then, that just helps us make those sentences.

Then, I do the same thing for just to introduce the relative, and adverbial clause, and the passive voice. I just have a visual that shows how the different pieces move and what they mean. That makes a world of a difference. I love using a visual because, one, it makes it less confusing. We're not doing quite as much talking around things, and just talking about grammar can be very confusing.

Then, having that visual, it allows us to do less talking. It makes it easier for the student to process. Then, it's also really easy to refer to when we're doing different activities. The cool thing is, too, a visual can go with a student. They can take it to class with them, like if they're going to resource room, as well, and they're writing a paper, they can use those visuals when they're writing their essays, or whatever it may be.

It just increases ... We can give the student independence a little bit more quickly by giving them those visuals. That's a huge component of my teaching. I keep it as simple as possible. I just work ... My strategy is to give a simple explanation, kind of like I did when I was recapping the different grammar structures with you. I just keep it as simple as that, and even simpler, if I can, and just give them the nitty-gritty of what they need to know. Then, I just make sure that they can see all the different examples of relative pronouns and adverbs.

I don't focus too, too much on the terminology around it. I just give them that recipe. They don't have to know that it's a relative pronoun, per se. I give them the recipe, so that, the visual recipe of what the different conjunctions are or whatnot. Then, we work to create those sentences.

Not a whole lot of terminology around that. It's just a lot of functional practice with it. We'll get the recipe, and then we'll start making sentences. We'll start with things that are really relevant to them, like talking about the cafeteria, or their classes, or whatever movie they're excited about, or TV show, or game, or just whatever will capture their interest, something that they really understand well, so that they can wrap their head around those structures.

Then, once we get some good introductions there, that's when we can dive into the next steps. I always take some time to just introduce that concept, give them just a little primer, and just highlight the grammatical forms that we're going to be working on. Yeah. That ends up just being 5 to 10 minutes before we dive into an activity. Then, just focusing on the, and I like to just focus on one form at a time. I think that's a little easier. Then, we just learn by doing, like I said, following that recipe and putting that together.

That is step two. Then, for step three, we'll do some focused stimulation. Then, one caveat here, too, you know your students best. Some students might benefit just from some focused stimulation before you even try to explain it. Some students, it makes sense to teach it before you do the focused stimulation. I feel like these two go hand-in-hand at some times. Yeah. It doesn't have to be a linear process. You can use your clinical judgment to see what makes sense.

Quick recap of what focused stimulation is. It's when we provide frequent models and recasts in a variety of activities. When we model something, we highlight the feature naturally in conversation, when we provide a recast, it's when we correct or modify what the child says. If the student produces just a simple sentence, or maybe two simple sentences, we can connect those with a subordinating conjunction. We can recast it, add a subordinating conjunction, and recast that into a complex sentence.

Then, just continuing to do that, giving them examples of what they're saying in conversation, as they're talking about the weekend, as they're talking about a class that they're frustrated with, whatever it may be. We can embed that in our conversation, or when we're talking about a text, or doing any other therapy activity.

If we're reading a fiction text, or a nonfiction article, I can dive into some of those examples. As they're answering comprehension questions, I'll model. When I'm talking about the text, I'll model those whatever target structures we're focusing on. Then, I can also recast their answers to whatever structure we're focusing on.

This sounds super similar to last week, because it's the exact same thing. That strategy can still be incredibly helpful. Then, we want to give students enough exposure to the targets before we start expecting them to produce those sentences on their own. It's really a matter of clinical judgment, in terms of how much time we spend on that teaching and the focused stimulation. Some students are going to need more of that structured practice than others. We want to always be thinking about moving on to step five. We're talking about some really specific, drill-based things that we can do, but we want to move into the embedded practice as quickly as possible.

Three things that we can do there are, one, modeling combined with production. Two is imitating contrasting sentences. Three is combining sentences. With the first step, modeling combined with production, this is when we ... It's just taking that focused stimulation to the next level. We model a structure and then prompt the student to produce, or repeat it after us, or imitate.

Then, this can be helpful, but there is limited evidence for generalization. It might be a good first step, just to move a little bit away from just the focused stimulation and get them to talk through it a little bit more. I find that a lot of my students end up automatically imitating my recasts and my models, because they know what we're doing. Sometimes, it even works with younger students. They just naturally recast my recast or recast my model. That is super interesting to see how that works.

Then, the next thing that we can do is imitate contrasting sentences. This can be interesting, because I most often use this for the simpler structures, but you can check out the Connell 1982 article that works through a step-by-step training procedure. You can also use this if you're working on, like, you could have ... I mean, there's unlimited options. You could have contrasting sentences with different conjunctions and changing the meaning of what the sentence means. Yeah, so many different ideas, there. I believe that Connell 1982 gives some different examples of the more complex things that we can do with that.

Yeah. That's a really fun strategy that we can use, there. Then, another thing that we can do is combining sentences, which is really helpful when we're talking about compound, complex sentences, relative clauses, and adverbial clauses, because by combining sentences, we are using clauses, which is what all of those things are. We can give students two or more sentences.

Sometimes, we can even cut up an article and have them combine the sentences in the article. Sometimes, we'll just copy and paste it into a Word document and find ways to put them together. That's a way to connect with what we're reading in the text, or we can take the student responses and go from there.

There's two types of combining. We can do cued combining, where we provide the ... We underline the components that the student needs to combine and give them whatever they need to combine that sentence, whether it's the conjunction, the relative pronoun, whatnot. That is a step, like a scaffolded step.

Then, we can also do open combining, where we don't give them specific instructions. We just give them two sentences and prompt the student to combine them. Those are some fun strategies that we can use to work on some of those different skills.

Another bonus activity that I think is really fun when we're working on these different types of clauses is sentence expansion. We can just prompt students, like, we can take a sentence out of a text and expand it. Students can have a lot of fun. Sometimes, they'll do challenges to see who can come up with the longest sentence that's still grammatically correct and makes sense. We can just do different games with that.

Yeah. We can just pull a simple sentence from the article. Then, you add whatever types of clauses that we're using to increase the complexity and the length of that sentence. If we're working on adverbial clauses, we can say, "I saw the dog run," and then we can add different adverbial clauses to help clarify that picture of what the dog looks like when he's running, or how the dog is running, rather.

Those are just some fun activities that we can do when it comes to the drill practice. You don't really need a ton of materials. Once you have those visuals, it's really easy for students to understand what they're supposed to be doing. We can make it fun by just grabbing a dry erase marker and writing the sentence on the table, or letting them draw on the white board, or letting them type on the tablet, or letting them write the sentence in smelly marker, or whatever it may be.

There's a lot of different ways that we can make this more fun and interesting. I also, like, I mentioned this a lot, but there is some iPad apps that I really enjoy, too. This even works with older students. We can take pictures, or we can grab pictures from Google of their favorite celebrities, or TV show characters, or whatever it may be. As a reward for writing their complex sentence, or whatever structure we're targeting, they get to read that sentence out loud.

With ChatterPix, when you record someone's voice, it plays it back to you, and it looks like, it moves the mouth of the image that you imported, so it looks like your favorite movie character is saying that sentence. They get a big kick out of that. It keeps them engaged. Then, they're getting more exposure to those structures. That's a really fun way to get in that practice in a fun and engaging way. Then, you could even switch between characters. There are so many options. It's so fun.

That's what we do for step four, when we're doing more of that structured practice. Like I said, it can make a lot of sense to just pull sentences from the article. If that's still too confusing, we can just create sentences based on what they know, what their responses to questions, whatever it may be.

Then, once we give them enough exposure, and the purpose of the drill-based practice is just to highlight and prime those linguistic features. Then, we want to immediately incorporate them into the embedded activities, which we will dive into now. By using sentences from a reading passage, we can still do drill-based practice, but we're moving towards more embedded, because once we do that, we can have students respond to questions using their clauses. We can have them retell the story or summarize the article using their target structures. That helps us get towards that more embedded practice.

Yeah. Comprehension activities are a huge one. The retell, and any discussion around the story, any communication that we're doing, we get to embed the skills that we've been targeting throughout the entire unit. Like I said, that retell, summarizing component is one of my favorites. I like to have, with older students, we don't do quite as many traditional parallel stories where we're creating a book. Some students are very interested with that.

With them, I like to do some things that involve more media, because that gets them very excited. We can write a newscast and record that. That's a very, like, they'll be giving presentations in their classes, so that's a worthwhile skill to practice. We can generate that summary and then deliver the summary pretending to be a newscaster.

A lot of them want to be YouTubers. We can look at their favorite styles and incorporate some of that while using their sentence structures related to what the text that we're talking about. We're probably not going to ... I want it to be educationally relevant, so we might not be talking about the coolest new clothes or whatever those YouTubers talk about, or whatever stunts they're playing, but if it's related to the article that we're discussing, and if it's related to what they're working on in the classroom, then we're golden, and we're good to go.

That's how we do that. Then, just a recap, these steps are not linear. We'll move back and forth between these steps. It's not always one, two, three, four, five. Sometimes it's like, one, two, four, three, five, six, or not six, because that's not a step.

You get the idea. You use your clinical judgment to get a feel for where the students are. Don't forget to teach, because otherwise, this will be incredibly frustrating. Visuals are huge and so incredibly helpful. Definitely check out the, I'll put the citations in the show notes at SLPNow.com/35. Do check out those articles, because they help map out these things in such a detailed way. It gives you a protocol on how to implement this.

I will work on putting together some more specific examples, but if you're wanting to apply this to your caseload, definitely check out those articles. Double-check me on the research, too. Maybe there's something different out there or just a different interpretation. I just think going to the source is incredibly helpful.

A quick recap of the steps that we talked about. We start with assessment, and again, head to episode 33 to see more of the specifics. Step two is teaching. Step three is focused stimulation. Step four is structured practice. Step five is embedded practice. That's what we've got going on. I'll just give some examples of how we can apply this to an example unit.

I make, because I don't always have time to dive into all of the articles that our students are using. We can pull from just about anything when we're looking for materials within these literacy-based therapy units. We can use a social studies textbook, a science textbook. We can use whatever. We can use excerpts from books they're reading in English, or yeah, any literature is fair game.

One of my favorite time-saving strategies, because it is challenging, especially in a secondary setting, to connect with all of the teachers, and to know what they're doing at all times, and to figure out where they are in a text, because if they're reading a book as a unit, it can be a little bit frustrating, because it takes us several sessions to work through even just a couple paragraphs in the book. The book is not to keep up with what the teachers are doing in the classroom. The goal is to go beyond that, because we are speech language pathologists, and not tutors. We're really diving into a text to help give a student more exposure.

Personally, I've found that to be a little tricky, because the students get frustrated, like, "Why are we working on this small part of chapter one? We're already on chapter five. Why are we going ..." It just gets a little bit frustrating.

I like to try, if I'm working with the English teacher, I might just find out what they're book they're reading and find articles related to that, to help build their background knowledge and schema around those things. If they're reading articles, I'll definitely use those, if I can grab them. I find that sometimes it makes it easier to implement if we can just ... The teacher can easily tell us, "We're learning about X, Y, and Z this semester," and we can just find things to support that. I mean, we can always use what they're using in the classroom, as well.

What I ended up doing, for my own sanity, was I grabbed a bunch of articles. I love using ReadWorks, personally, so I grabbed a bunch of articles from there. I tried to grab the articles that I knew included topics that a lot of my students would be covering in their classrooms. Then, I made cheat sheets and activities to go with those articles.

It's been absolutely amazing. I just have, like, I keep the unit in ... I mean, it's all on my digital therapy planner in SLP Now. I started just printing out some of the materials to prep for the week, and then I just ended up keeping the folders. It's amazing, because I have a little cheat sheet that I use. Then, I put some different activities in there. It's just in a poly folder. I use paperclips to organize the different sets of papers.

Then, a quick cheat, I always mention this. If you want to make sure you don't use up your original, you can mark a big X in yellow highlighter. Then, you'll know not to give that one away. If you run it to the copy machine, it won't pick up the yellow highlighter, which is super cool.

Yeah. I just keep that bundle. Then, I've found myself, like, "Man, I need a therapy activity." Then, I can just grab that. It gives me everything that I need for that unit, in addition to the grammar visuals that I have ready to go, as well as vocabulary and whatever else I might need to teach the concepts. I have everything that I need for the structured practice and the embedded practice within that little folder.

The cheat sheets really help, because I pull all of the different grammar structures out. It can be a little bit overwhelming to try and find all of the, like, is this a good ... Will this article give us enough examples of adverbial clauses that we can pull apart and start to understand? Whatever structure we're working on. This can help us. What coordinating conjunctions does this article have? Which subordinating conjunctions? It just gives me a quick memory jog, too, on what I might want to do.

That's what we do. Then, I just grab the cheat sheet. It helps me figure out which targets we want to focus on, based on the students' goals. Then, we follow that framework that we talked about, like the one, two, three, four, five for grammar and embed that into the whole unit.

One example, I just pulled up the cheat sheet for an article called Snow Day Fever. This is from ReadWorks, as well. It's a fiction article about a boy who has a fever on a snow day. He really wants to play outside, so he tricks his mom, so that, like, he puts the thermometer in a glass of ice to get his temperature to go down. Obviously, that didn't work out so well.

It's a really nice article. It's relevant if we're having lots of snow days, or the students are learning about weather, or whatever it may be. This is one that I typically use, like, I think it was written at a third grade reading level, so it can be used with later elementary, secondary students. It's a fiction article, so it's great for story grammar and all of those other types of things. Lots and lots of vocabulary.

Because we're focusing on grammar, when I look at the cheat sheet for Snow Day Fever, I can quickly see which pronouns we have. There's one example of an irregular plural noun, tons and tons of irregular past tense verbs. Then, we have a couple of conjunctions, a handful of subordinating conjunctions. We've got some adverbial clauses, relative clauses.

Having this at a glance, I can just quickly look at my students' goals and figure out which targets I want to focus on, given what's in the text. Then, we may target all of them, throughout the unit. It just helps me prioritize for that session.

Then, when we're in the ... It depends on which stage of the literacy-based therapy framework we're in. If we're doing the pre-story knowledge activation, that's step one, I'm primarily focusing on ... We'll be discussing, like, each article has a pre-story knowledge activation sheet, so we'll be discussing some of those questions, like, have you ever had a snow day? What do you do on a snow day? Do you think we should have snow days? All of those different things, we're discussing that.

Then, I'm being very strategic. I'm modeling the structures. I'm recasting. We're focusing on the grammar that way. That's that focused stimulation.

Then, teaching, we get to decide at what stage we do that. Then, step two of the literacy-based therapy framework is when we read the text. I might just emphasize some of the structures, like, "This is a adverbial clause. It tells me more about," blah, blah. I can embed some of that, if that makes sense.

Then, step three is comprehension activities. Again, I'm recasting. I could, depending on where the students are with this skill, I can listen for them to use those skills in their responses to the questions, and all of that good stuff. Then, yeah, if they're not quite there yet, then I will continue to provide focused stimulation, so that when we get to step four, which is that skill practice, then they'll be ready for my imitating contrastive sentences, creating their own sentences, whatever it may be.

The cool thing with these activities, if you have the visual, and you have the targets, all you really need is a blank piece of paper or a whiteboard. Just anything for the student to write on, or a recording device, if you wanted to have verbal sentences. One other really fun thing that students love is voice to text. They get to produce their sentence, and then they get to see it show up on the computer, or the tablet, or phone, whatever you're using. Then, that's a great way to get immediate feedback, and look at the sentence, and see if that makes sense, and if we can expand on it, or whatever that may be.

That's something that we can do if we're working on expanding their sentences, or I can just pull together some quick contrasting sentences for them to imitate, or whatever the exercise is. That's what we do in step four. We really dive into all of those specific structures and put all of that together. Then, we continue to do that with the embedded practice, where we're responding to questions and all of that.

Yeah. I've got all of my targets, here. I have my visuals ready to go. I'm ready go tackle the unit, because I've got my evidence-based strategies in my pocket, because you are your best therapy tool. Armed with these strategies and a couple simple materials and resources, you're ready to rock your grammar intervention.

Yeah, that's what we've got. Let me know if you have any questions. I will share some videos and just a example in the live course. Then, yeah, let me know if you're interested in checking that out. Yeah, we're good to go.

If you're here live, stay tuned for the video. If not, I will see you next week, and we'll continue talking about all things literacy-based therapy. Thank you.




Hi there! I'm Marisha. I am a school-based SLP who is all about working smarter, not harder. I created the SLP Now Membership and love sharing tips and tricks to help you save time so you can focus on what matters most--your students AND yourself.

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